GitHub for Beginners
Table of Contents:
- GitHUb Workflow
- GitHub Account Creation and Configuration
- Creating your Personal Environment
- Making your Changes
- Publishing your Changes
This page is a GitHub and Git survival kit for people not familiar with these tools! This is not a documentation or tutorial about these tools. Many excellent ones are already available, including:
- GitHub Bootcamp, in particular fork a repository
- Git for the Novice from Software Carpentry
- Git Book: the definitive Git reference! Certainly not for beginners!
At a first glance, GitHub (and Git) may look complex with their “workflows”. But they are not so much in fact. What makes these tools great is that they allow a clear separation between your personal work and what you decide to show or export. Your personal work, unlike with tools like SVN, can be versionned and you can work on different things in parallel (branches) very easily.
In the hepix-forum web site context, what is shared is what is in the project repository called, hepix-forum.github.io. Your personal environment is made of 2 parts:
- One personal repository on GitHub, called a fork. It is typically created using the GitHub web interface, click on the
Forkbutton when you are in the project repository. Despite this is a Git repository, you cannot access it directly from you local computer with Git commands (for example, you cannot
git commitchanges made on your local computer to it).
- One (or several) clone of your personal repository on GitHub. This is where you’ll make/develop your changes, using the full versionning
capabilities of Git. And until you publish (
git push) your changes to your personal repository (fork) on GitHub, they are not visible by anybody else. Once they have been pushed to your fork, they are potentially visible but you control when you want to submit these changes to the project repository by creating a
pull request: at this point people can review/comment your changes and people with the appropriate permissions can
merge(accept) your changes in the project repository.
With this GitHub workflow, the only repository you need to have write access to on GitHub is your personal repository. This ensures that nothing wrong can happen to the project repository because you are not a Git/GitHub expert.
Sections below give more details on the main steps involved. Note that there is a help available for each Git command that can be displayed with:
git help git help command
GitHub Account Creation and Configuration
To contribute, you definitely need to have a GitHub account: connect to gitHub and follow the instructions.
Once you have an account, it is
recommended to configure your SSK keys that will be used for the authentication: follow the GitHub
documentation. Using SSH keys is not a requirement but is recommended: the
alternative if you want to contribute is to use
https but in this case any interaction with GiHb through the
git command may require
(depending on your OS) that you enter your password…
Creating your Personal Environment
As explained in the introduction, this involves 2 steps:
- Creating your personal fork: with your browser, open this web site repository and
click on the
Forkbutton at the top-right of page.
Creating your local clone of your personal fork (assuming your name is
# The local Git repository will be in a directory hepix-forum.github.io in your current directory. # The exact URL to use is on the right side of web page, when you display your personal fork. git clone firstname.lastname@example.org:johndoe/hepix-forum.github.io.git # Move in your repository cd hepix-forum.github.io
Connect your local clone to the project repository: as it will be explained in other sections, there are several occasions where you will want to import changes that happened in the project repository into your local clone that you use to develop your contributions. In Git, this involves creating a remote and is done with:
# Later to refer to the project repository, we'll use the remote called upstream git remote add upstream email@example.com:hepix-forum/hepix-forum.github.io.git
Note that adding a remote adds no information to the repository itself.
Making your Changes
This step is about making your changes in your local clone: nothing will be visible on GitHub at this stage. There are many variations of the steps involved here: below are the main/recommanded ones.
Get the last updates from the project repository and add them to your local clone. This doesn’t make any change to your local developments (branches):
git fetch upstream
Create a branch for your new contribution (existing branches can be displayed with
git branch). Having a large number of branches is not a problem, so avoid reusing existing branches, in particular if you are not a Git expert, as you increase the risk of a conflict. Here we’ll start a new branch based on the last state of the main project branch called
# New branch will be called mydev1 git checkout -b mydev1 upstream/master
Make your changes: create new files, modify existing ones with your preferred editor. For example, we add a file called
echo "Hello world" > test
Commit your changes. Git is quite powerful to select what changes you want to make part of a commit: this allows to commit separately several set of changes made at the same time. For this reason, there is a command
git addthan can be used before the commit itself (
git commit) if you want to add new files marked as
git status. To add all the modifications to the files previously managed by Git, you can use option
git commitinsted of executing
# Add file `test` created before git add test # -m option can be used to set the commit message rather than being asked for, else an editor is open to enter it git commit
Note that you can do the cycle edit/commit as many times as you want, until you are satisfied, before pushing your changes.
Publishing your Changes
Publishing changes involves 2 steps (again!):
Pushing your changes to your personal fork on GitHub. This is done on your local machine with the following Git command. Note that the command is executed twice: the first time to check that what will be done is correct, the second to actually do it: this is by no means mandatory but is a best practice, in particular when you are not familiar with Git.
# In this command origin is the Git remote pointing to your fork # and HEAD is a symbolic name for the current branch. # After the first push of your branch to GitHub, you can use 'git push' without options git push --set-upstream origin HEAD -n # Check what will be done by the command and reexecute without -n to actually do it git push --set-upstream origin HEAD
Ask for your changes to be integrated into the project. This is done by creating a pull request, using the web interface: if you open either your personal fork or the project repository after you have pushed something to a branch of your personal fork that is not yet published in an open pull request, GitHub will display a line proposing to create a pull request. Just click the button, check the title of the pull request and add a description.
After the pull request has been created, all the persons interested in the project repository changes will be notified by email. Everybody can subscribe the repository notifications. At this point, your contribution is open for review: people can comment, suggest changes… When there is an agreement that the contribution is in good shape, somebody with the appropriate permission will merge it in the poject repository (this is a one-click operation).
Note that as soon as a pull request is open, every change that you make to the personal branch that you published (which is the source of the pull request) is published immediately (until the pull request is closed/merged). You cannot create several pull requests with the same source branch.
When the pull request is merged, you can decide to delete your personal branch that was used to make your contribution but there is no real need to do it… It’s a matter of personal taste!